The 2019 California Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program Report

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

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The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) runs one of the oldest and most extensive state pesticide residue-monitoring programs in the nation. The California Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program (CPRMP) samples and tests for pesticide residues in individual lots of domestically grown and imported fresh produce. The CPRMP enforces pesticide residue tolerances set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). A tolerance is the maximum residue level of a specific pesticide allowed on human or animal food in the United States. The Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 40, Part 180, lists tolerances and dictates how to analyze raw agricultural commodities for pesticide residue testing.

U.S. EPA establishes tolerances based on the pesticide toxicity, how much and how often the pesticide is applied, and how much of the pesticide remains in or on the commodity.

CPRMP staff sample a wide range of fruits and vegetables collected at sites where produce is sold, packed, or distributed. Produce sampling is not designed to be statistically representative of the overall rate of residue levels for a particular pesticide, commodity, or place of origin. Instead, sampled commodities selected are based on multiple factors including:

  • Produce highly consumed by infants and children.
  • Produce treated with pesticides listed as carcinogens or reproductive toxins.
  • Produce reflective of consumption patterns among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups.
  • Produce which has a history of detected illegal pesticide residues.

Therefore, sampling results may be biased towards finding produce more likely to have pesticide residues than if samples were collected in a random statistical fashion. The number of samples of a given commodity may not be large enough to make generalizations about the pesticide residue levels for the entire volume of a commodity in trade.

DPR contracts with the California Department of Food and Agriculture’s (CDFA) Center for Analytical Chemistry. Their ISO 17025 accredited laboratories analyze samples for nearly 500 different pesticides and pesticide breakdown products. ISO/IEC 17025 is the standard for laboratory competence worldwide.

If illegal residues are found DPR immediately removes the illegal produce from the channels of trade. In addition, if the owner of the commodity has similar produce from the same source, DPR quarantines those lots unless subsequent laboratory testing determines they are free from illegal residues. Further, DPR traces the distribution of the illegal produce by contacting distributors throughout California, imposing quarantines and conducting extra sampling and testing. In 2019, 96% of produce samples collected by DPR were legal and either had no detectable pesticide residues or residue levels below the applicable U.S. EPA tolerance. Of the 3,274 produce samples DPR collected in 2019, illegal pesticide residues were found in 4% of samples (137 samples).

2019 Pesticide Residue Monitoring Sampling Results

CPRMP staff collected 3,274 produce samples from approximately 500 different businesses in 2019. These include wholesale and retail outlets, distribution centers, and roadside and farmers markets (Figure 1).

Map of sampling sites in 2019

Figure 1. Map of sampling sites in 2019

Sample Results

In 2019, DPR collected 3,274 produce samples, from 28 different countries representing 124 different types of fruits and vegetables. The majority of samples, 3,137 (96%), were legal and either had no detectable pesticide residues or residue levels below the applicable U.S. EPA tolerance (Figure 2). Illegal pesticide residues were found in 137 samples (4%, see Appendix 1a identifying all produce samples found to contain illegal pesticide residue with corresponding sampling information, including the county in which the illegal residue was discovered). The majority of illegal samples (83%) involved detection of pesticide residues with no established federal tolerance, meaning any detected level is considered illegal.

Percentage of produce samples with no residues, only legal residues, or illegal residues detected in 2019.

Figure 2. Percentage of produce samples with no residues, only legal residues, or illegal residues detected in 2019.

Country of Origin

Half of the samples collected in 2019, were grown domestically (1,641 samples, 50%), while 1,607 samples (49%) were imported (Figure 3). The remaining 26 samples (1%) were of undetermined origin due to a lack of information on the containers.

Figure 3. Map of origins of sampled produce in 2019

Figure 3. Map of origins of sampled produce in 2019

Most illegal residues were on imported produce, accounting for 113 (82%) of the 137 produce samples with illegal residues (Figure 4). The violation rate for imported produce samples was five times higher than domestic samples (7.0% of imported samples had illegal residues versus 1.4% of domestically grown samples). In 2019, illegal residues were found on commodities originating from 10 different countries (Table 1).


Table 1. Numbers of illegal produce samples collected in 2019 by country of origin

Country of Origin Number Illegal Total Number Percent Illegal
Chile 1 95 1%
China 6 56 11%
Costa Rica 3 100 3%
Dominican Republic 1 3 33%
Ecuador 4 29 14%
Guatemala 3 23 13%
Mexico 68 1135 6%
Peru 1 36 3%
United States 24 1519 2%
Vietnam 26 39 67%

Figure 4. Sample result comparison between domestic and imported produce samples

Figure 4. Sample result comparison between domestic and imported produce samples

Commodity Results

In 2019, the program sampled 124 different types of fresh fruits and vegetables (see Appendix 1b for the list of all sampled commodities). Illegal residues were found in 48 different commodities (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Commodities with illegal residue in 2019

Figure 5. Commodities with illegal residue in 2019

Dietary Risk Assessments

DPR’s Human Health Assessment Branch (HHA) reviews the toxicity for each illegal pesticide residue. A dietary risk assessment is conducted to determine whether the residues pose a potential acute health risk to consumers. Assessments are based on consumption rates for the produce and acute reference doses for that pesticide or combination of pesticides. If HHA determines the produce may pose a potential health risk to consumers, DPR makes a concerted effort to remove it entirely from the channels of trade. DPR notifies and collaborates with the California Department of Public Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on these cases.

In 2019, HHA determined 18 samples (11 different commodities from 4 countries), were potential health risks to consumers (Figure 6). In all 18 samples, the potential health risks were due to illegal residues of organophosphates or carbamates (Table 2).

Figure 6. Potential Health Risk Residue Samples by Commodity Type and Origin

Figure 6. Potential Health Risk Residue Samples by Commodity Type and Origin


Table 2. Illegal pesticide residues determined to be potential health risks in 2019

Commodity ORIGIN Residues
Chayote Fruit Mexico Methamidophos, Monocrotophos
Cucumber Mexico Methomyl
Tomatillo Mexico Monocrotophos
Guava Mexico Monocrotophos
Mustard Greens Mexico Dimethoate, Omethoate
Plantain Mexico Chlorpyrifos
Pricklypear Cactus Pear Mexico Dimethoate, Chlorpyrifos, Monocrotophos, Carbofuran
Pricklypear Cactus Pads Mexico Acephate, Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate, Omethoate, Methomyl
Strawberry California Methomyl
Dragonfruit Ecuador Chlorpyrifos
Dragonfruit Vietnam Carbofuran

California Produce Sample Results

California grown produce accounted for more than 48% (787 samples) of all domestic samples tested. This value likely under represents the true number of California grown produce collected, as sampled commodities labeled as "product of USA" are potentially grown in California. For illegal residue samples, DPR does a trace back investigation to determine the source of the produce. However, for legal residue samples, DPR does not do a trace back investigation and is unable to determine, based on labeling alone, the state of origin for produce labeled "product of USA".

Over 98% of the samples labeled as grown in California had legal or no residues detected on them. Of the 787 California samples tested, only 2% of the samples had illegal residues (17 samples). One strawberry sample was determined to pose a potential acute health risk to consumers. Of the 88 different types of California grown commodities tested, eleven types of commodities had at least one sample with illegal pesticide residues (Table 3).


Table 3. Commodities grown in California with illegal pesticide residues detected in 2019.

Commodity Illegal Samples County Grown Pesticide Detected
Artichoke (Globe) 1 Ventura Chlorothalonil
Beet (Top) 2 Ventura, Riverside Trifloxystrobin, Abamectin
Celery 1 Ventura Difenoconazole
Cilantro 2 Ventura Thiamethoxam, Chlorothalonil
Kiwi 1 Tulare Myclobutanil
Leaf Lettuce (Green) 1 Riverside Linuron
Mustard Greens 1 Kern Linuron
Peach 1 Fresno Formetanate HCL
Radish (Tops) 1 Ventura Linuron
Spinach 5 San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara Linuron, Chlorothalonil, Propiconazole, Lambda Cyhalothrin, Propamocarb
Strawberries 1 Santa Barbara Methomyl

Organic Sample Results

Produce labeled as "organic" does not mean "not treated with pesticides." The U.S. Department of Agriculture allows certain pesticides for use in organic farming. In addition, certified organic produce may have residues of other pesticides at less than 5% of the U.S. EPA tolerance for conventionally grown commodities (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 7, Part 205.671).

The CPRMP collects organic produce as encountered during routine sampling and shares these testing results with CDFA. CDFA is responsible for administering the State Organic Program and regulates organic operations in the state. All organic samples with detected pesticides are referred to CDFA for follow up investigation and potential enforcement under the State Organic Program. In cases where an organic sample has pesticide residue levels above the U.S. EPA tolerance for conventionally grown commodities, in addition to referral to CDFA, DPR will also pursue actions.

In 2019, the CPRMP collected 262 organic samples. These samples represented 59 different commodities from nine different countries. Sixty-nine percent of the organics tested (180), were of domestic origins; 31% of the samples (82) were imported. Of the 262 organic samples collected, 37 different pesticides were found on 38 samples (Table 4). Three samples, mustard greens and spinach grown in California, and tomato imported from Mexico, had illegal residues of a pesticide that did not have an established tolerance. More detailed information about the State Organic Program.

Table 4. Pesticides detected on organic commodities sampled in 2019

Pesticide Commodity Number of Samples
Acetamiprid Cucumber 1
  Peppers (Non-Chili, Bell) 1
Azoxystrobin Blackberry 1
  Lemon 1
Bifenthrin Blackberry 1
Boscalid Blackberry 1
  Broccoli 1
  Carrots 1
Buprofezin Plum 1
Captan Blackberry 1
Chlorpropham Potatoes (All Varieties) 1
  Tomato 1
Chlorpyrifos Brussels Sprouts 1
Chlorthal-dimethyl Cilantro 1
Cypermethrin Blackberry 1
Cyprodinil Blackberry 1
DDE Carrots 2
Diphenylamine Apple 1
Fenhexamid Blackberry 1
Flonicamid Tomato 1
Fludioxonil Blackberry 1
  Lemon 1
  Peach 1
  Plum 1
Fluopyram Brussels Sprouts 1
  Plum 1
Fluxapyroxad Apricot 1
Imazalil Tangerine (Mandarin, Etc.) 1
Imidacloprid Blackberry 1
  Potatoes (All Varieties) 1
Malathion Blackberry 1
Metalaxyl Cucumber 1
Methoxyfenozide Blackberry 1
  Broccoli 1
  Plum 1
Novaluron Brussels Sprouts 1
Pendimethalin Kale 1
Permethrin Brussels Sprouts 1
Piperonyl butoxide Spinach 1
Propamocarb Tomato 1
Propiconazole Spinach 1
  Tangerine (Mandarin, Etc.) 1
Pyraclostrobin Apricot 1
  Broccoli 1
Pyrimethanil Apricot 1
Pyriproxyfen Tangerine (Mandarin, Etc.) 1
Rotenone Jicama ( Yam Bean) 1
Spinosad Apricot 1
  Beets, Table, Red, Tops 1
  Blackberry 1
  Nectarine 1
  Raspberry 1
  Spinach 1
  Strawberry 1
Sulfoxaflor Peppers (Non-Chili, Bell) 1
Thiabendazole Lemon 1
  Tangerine (Mandarin, Etc.) 1

DPR Enforcement on Illegal Pesticide Residues

When illegal pesticide residues are detected, DPR quarantines the produce containing the illegal residues. The owner of the quarantined produce has the option to either securely dispose of it on site, or with prior DPR approval "recondition" the produce or convert it into byproducts. Reconditioning can include, washing, peeling or simply waiting for the pesticide residue to breakdown to acceptable tolerance levels or be eliminated entirely if the illegal residue(s) has no established tolerance. After reconditioning, the owner must pay for the sample to be reanalyzed. If test results show the pesticide residue below the legal tolerance, DPR may allow sale of the produce. If not, disposal of the produce is required.

DPR investigators trace the movement of the produce with illegal residues by contacting distributors, retailers, and wholesalers throughout California. DPR quarantines and collects additional samples if suspected of carrying illegal residues. If it is determined that the produce with illegal pesticide residues was grown in California, the County Agricultural Commissioner (CAC) in the county where the produce was grown will investigate to determine the source of contamination. Frequently, DPR scientists assist CAC staff with this investigation. CACs have authority to levy civil penalties for illegal use of pesticides.

To stem the flow of produce with illegal residues into California, DPR conducts compliance interviews with companies repeatedly identified as the first point of sale in California of produce with illegal residues. These companies are typically produce importers, brokers, or distributors. During these compliance assistance interviews, DPR staff reviews the illegal residue cases with company representatives, and discusses steps the company may take to prevent future sale of produce with illegal pesticide residues. DPR has the authority to levy civil penalties against anyone who packs, ships, or sells produce with illegal pesticide residues.

In 2019, DPR took enforcement action against two strawberry growers in Santa Maria, California. Strawberries from these growers had illegal methomyl residues, a restricted material pesticide not registered for use on strawberries in the U.S. DPR levied a $20,000 civil penalty against the growers and seized four tons of the contaminated strawberries destined for sale. The Santa Barbara CAC issued a cease harvest order on eleven acres of the contaminated strawberries remaining in the field.

Also, in 2019, DPR imposed $175,435 in civil penalties against one produce company with a history of importing and selling produce with illegal pesticide residues.

Information on these penalties can be found at Produce with Illegal Pesticide Residue Fines and Settlements.

All 2019 CPRMP produce sampling results are available for downloading on DPR’s website. Click on "A-Z Index" and then go to "Residue Monitoring Program".


Appendix 1 a. 2019 CRMP commodity samples containing illegal pesticide residues.

Sample Date Sample Identification Number * Collection Site County Collection Site Type Commodity Illegal Pesticide Residue Amount Detected (PPM) U.S. EPA Tolerance (PPM) ** Commodity Origin State or Country
01/07/19 A19M00001 Riverside Whole Sales Tomatillo Carbendazim 0.066 NTE Mexico
01/07/19 A19M00015 Merced Retail Kiwi Fruit Myclobutanil 0.023 NTE California
01/08/19 R19M00047 Kern Retail Plantain Chlorpyrifos 0.11 0.1 Mexico
01/14/19 A19M00038 Los Angeles Chain Distribution Celery Difenoconazole 0.024 NTE California
01/14/19 A19M00039 Los Angeles Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Dimethoate 0.044 NTE Ecuador
01/14/19 A19M00039 Los Angeles Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Lambda-Cyhalothrin 0.013 0.01 Ecuador
01/14/19 A19M00060 Stanislaus Retail Squash (Summer) Endosulfan 0.013 NTE Mexico
01/14/19 A19M00061 Stanislaus Retail Tomatillo Monocrotophos 0.027 NTE Mexico
01/14/19 R19M00062 Yolo Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.096 NTE Vietnam
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Flutriafol 0.024 NTE Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Teflubenzuron 0.011 NTE Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Dimethoate 0.018 NTE Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Thiabendazole 0.018 NTE Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Cypermethrin 0.071 0.05 Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Hexythiazox 0.021 NTE Ecuador
01/15/19 R19M00087 San Joaquin Chain Distribution Dragonfruit Chlorothalonil 0.047 NTE Ecuador
02/04/19 R19M00124 El Dorado Retail Tomato Captan 0.077 0.05 Mexico
02/04/19 R19M00126 El Dorado Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.014 NTE Vietnam
02/04/19 R19M00109 Sacramento Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.011 NTE Vietnam
02/04/19 R19M00112 Sacramento Retail Tomatillo Carbendazim 0.014 NTE Mexico
02/06/19 A19M00132 Los Angeles Whole Sales Peas (Seed & Pod Vegetable) Tebuconazole 0.015 NTE Guatemala
02/06/19 A19M00121 Orange Whole Sales Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.058 NTE Vietnam
02/06/19 A19M00121 Orange Whole Sales Dragonfruit Pyraclostrobin 0.014 NTE Vietnam
02/06/19 A19M00121 Orange Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.02 NTE Vietnam
02/06/19 A19M00121 Orange Whole Sales Dragonfruit Tebuconazole 0.031 NTE Vietnam
02/11/19 A19M00138 Los Angeles Whole Sales Apple Iprodione 0.041 NTE China - Mainland
02/11/19 A19M00161 Santa Clara Retail Cucumber Methomyl 0.34 0.2 Mexico
02/11/19 A19M00162 Santa Clara Retail Pea, Snow (Sugar Pea) Tebuconazole 0.014 NTE Guatemala
02/11/19 A19M00165 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.63 NTE Vietnam
02/11/19 A19M00165 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.022 NTE Vietnam
02/11/19 R19M00172 San Joaquin Whole Sales Onions (Green) Propamocarb 0.15 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00178 San Joaquin Whole Sales Tomatillo Carbendazim 0.022 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00178 San Joaquin Whole Sales Tomatillo Methamidophos 0.028 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Methamidophos 0.015 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Methomyl 0.18 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Acephate 1.2 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Chlorpyrifos 0.69 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Diazinon 0.068 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Dimethoate 0.55 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00180 San Joaquin Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Monocrotophos 0.027 NTE Mexico
02/11/19 R19M00165 Yolo Retail Blackberry Permethrin 0.16 NTE Mexico
02/12/19 R19M00181 Sacramento Whole Sales Strawberry Pyrimethanil 3.4 3 Mexico
02/19/19 A19M00197 Los Angeles Whole Sales Peppers (Chili Type) Carbendazim 0.091 NTE Mexico
02/19/19 A19M00197 Los Angeles Whole Sales Peppers (Chili Type) Fipronil 0.037 NTE Mexico
02/19/19 A19M00197 Los Angeles Whole Sales Peppers (Chili Type) Captan 0.11 0.05 Mexico
02/19/19 R19M00204 Placer Chain Distribution Beets, Table, Red, Tops Trifloxystrobin 0.15 NTE United States
02/19/19 R19M00204 Placer Chain Distribution Beets, Table, Red, Tops Cypermethrin 0.11 0.05 United States
02/25/19 R19M00222 Solano Retail Blackberry Chlorothalonil 0.062 NTE Mexico
03/11/19 R19M00301 Fresno Retail Ginger Root Clothianidin 1.3 0.3 China
03/11/19 R19M00289 Merced Retail Tomatillo Acephate 0.022 0.02 Mexico
03/12/19 A19M00285 Fresno Retail Rambutan Cypermethrin 0.098 0.05 Vietnam
03/12/19 A19M00285 Fresno Retail Rambutan Carbendazim 0.77 NTE Vietnam
03/12/19 A19M00285 Fresno Retail Rambutan Hexaconazole 0.051 NTE Vietnam
03/12/19 A19M00286 Fresno Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.084 NTE Vietnam
03/12/19 A19M00289 Fresno Retail Star Apple Acetamiprid 0.049 0.01 Vietnam
03/12/19 A19M00290 Fresno Retail Otaheite Apple Acephate 0.11 0.02 United States
03/12/19 A19M00276 Tulare Retail Garbanzos Carbendazim 0.023 NTE Mexico
03/18/19 A19M00319 Stanislaus Retail Artichoke (Globe) Chlorothalonil 0.026 NTE California
03/18/19 R19M00327 Sacramento Retail Strawberry Pyrimethanil 3.1 3 Mexico
03/19/19 R19M00376 Madera Retail Tomatillo Chlorpyrifos 0.06 NTE Mexico
03/19/19 R19M00377 Madera Retail Mango Carbendazim 0.021 NTE Mexico
03/19/19 R19M00364 San Benito Retail Cabbage Tebuconazole 0.04 NTE Texas
03/19/19 R19M00359 Alameda Retail Peppers (Chili Type) Fipronil 0.11 NTE Mexico
03/19/19 R19M00346 Yolo Whole Sales Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.03 NTE Vietnam
03/19/19 R19M00346 Yolo Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.06 NTE Vietnam
03/20/19 A19M00332 Riverside Chain Distribution Beets, Table, Red, Tops Trifloxystrobin 0.012 NTE California
03/25/19 A19M00366 Tulare Retail Radish Tops Flupyradifurone 0.21 NTE Mexico
03/25/19 R19M00382 Sutter Whole Sales Peppers (Non-Chili) Thiamethoxam 0.34 0.25 Mexico
03/27/19 A19M00374 Riverside Chain Distribution Peppers (Chili Type) Fipronil 0.036 NTE Mexico
04/08/19 A19M00388 Fresno Retail Blackberry Methamidophos 0.012 NTE Mexico
04/08/19 R19M00449 Butte Retail Lime, Mexican Carbendazim 0.025 NTE Mexico
04/08/19 R19M00441 Contra Costa Retail Tomato Pymetrozine 0.34 0.2 Mexico
04/15/19 A19M00424 Los Angeles Whole Sales Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.044 NTE Vietnam
04/15/19 A19M00425 Los Angeles Whole Sales Ginger Root Cyromazine 0.055 NTE China
04/15/19 R19M00473 Sacramento Whole Sales Cilantro Thiamethoxam 0.04 0.02 California
04/17/19 A19M00457 Los Angeles Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.013 NTE Vietnam
04/22/19 A19M00466 Los Angeles Whole Sales Dragonfruit Tetradifon 0.01 NTE Ecuador
04/22/19 A19M00482 Fresno Whole Sales Tomatillo Cypermethrin 0.38 0.2 Mexico
04/23/19 R19M00505 Alameda Whole Sales Dragonfruit Acetamiprid 0.013 NTE Vietnam
04/23/19 R19M00505 Alameda Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.03 NTE Vietnam
04/23/19 R19M00506 Alameda Whole Sales Tomato Chlorpropham 0.041 NTE Mexico
04/23/19 R19M00511 San Joaquin Whole Sales Dragonfruit Forchlorfenuron 0.072 NTE Vietnam
04/23/19 R19M00511 San Joaquin Whole Sales Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.011 NTE Vietnam
04/23/19 R19M00511 San Joaquin Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.5 NTE Vietnam
04/23/19 R19M00512 San Joaquin Whole Sales Blackberry Cypermethrin 0.94 0.8 Mexico
04/29/19 A19M00518 Los Angeles Whole Sales Chayote Fruit Monocrotophos 0.09 NTE Mexico
04/29/19 A19M00518 Los Angeles Whole Sales Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.04 NTE Mexico
04/29/19 A19M00539 Monterey Retail Pineapple Permethrin 0.011 NTE Mexico
05/06/19 A19M00555 Orange Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.52 NTE Vietnam
05/06/19 A19M00555 Orange Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.058 NTE Vietnam
05/06/19 A19M00560 Orange Retail Spinach Linuron 0.014 NTE California
05/06/19 A19M00577 Merced Retail Beets, Table, Red, Tops Chlorthal-Dimethyl 0.017 NTE Mexico
05/06/19 A19M00571 Tulare Retail Pea, Snow (Sugar Pea) Tebuconazole 0.083 NTE Guatemala
05/06/19 A19M00572 Tulare Retail Tomatillo Carbendazim 0.1 NTE Mexico
05/06/19 R19M00567 Sacramento Retail Longan Acetamiprid 0.22 0.01 Vietnam
05/06/19 R19M00567 Sacramento Retail Longan Carbendazim 0.015 NTE Vietnam
05/06/19 R19M00567 Sacramento Retail Longan Difenoconazole 0.21 NTE Vietnam
05/08/19 A19M00600 Los Angeles Whole Sales Onions (Green) Permethrin 0.031 NTE Mexico
05/13/19 R19M00582 San Mateo Whole Sales Ginger Root Thiamethoxam 0.11 0.02 China
05/14/19 R19M00595 Sacramento Retail Cilantro DDE 0.016 NTE United States
05/20/19 R19M00630 San Francisco Whole Sales Ginger Root Thiamethoxam 0.032 0.02 China
05/28/19 A19M00673 Los Angeles Whole Sales Manioc (Cassava) Chlorothalonil 0.023 NTE Costa Rica
05/28/19 R19M00651 Sacramento Retail Guava Permethrin 0.011 NTE Mexico
05/28/19 R19M00651 Sacramento Retail Guava Dimethoate 0.026 NTE Mexico
05/28/19 R19M00661 Sacramento Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.026 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00713 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.025 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00717 Santa Clara Retail Longan Difenoconazole 0.015 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00717 Santa Clara Retail Longan Hexaconazole 0.24 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00718 Santa Clara Retail Longan Acetamiprid 0.2 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00718 Santa Clara Retail Longan Difenoconazole 0.13 NTE Vietnam
06/03/19 A19M00718 Santa Clara Retail Longan Carbendazim 0.067 NTE Vietnam
06/05/19 A19M00730 Los Angeles Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.035 NTE Vietnam
06/05/19 R19M00688 Yolo Roadside Stand Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.23 NTE Mexico
06/10/19 A19M00754 San Luis Obispo Retail Eggplant Carbendazim 0.011 NTE Mexico
06/10/19 A19M00754 San Luis Obispo Retail Eggplant Pyrimethanil 0.016 NTE Mexico
06/10/19 R19M00717 Yolo Retail Dragonfruit Clothianidin 0.023 NTE Vietnam
06/11/19 R19M00748 Fresno Retail Cucumber Methamidophos 0.012 NTE Mexico
06/11/19 R19M00749 Fresno Retail Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.019 NTE Mexico
06/11/19 R19M00733 Sacramento Whole Sales Dragonfruit Tebuconazole 0.013 NTE Vietnam
06/11/19 R19M00733 Sacramento Whole Sales Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.067 NTE Vietnam
06/12/19 A19M00765 San Bernardino Farmer's Market Beets, Table, Red, Tops Abamectin 0.049 0.01 California
06/18/19 A19M00820 Santa Clara Retail Mustard Greens Dimethoate 3.5 2 Mexico
06/18/19 A19M00823 Santa Clara Retail Papaya Fluopyram 0.014 NTE Mexico
06/24/19 R19M00817 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Propamocarb 0.26 NTE Vietnam
06/24/19 R19M00817 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Metalaxyl 0.016 NTE Vietnam
06/24/19 R19M00817 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.06 NTE Vietnam
06/24/19 R19M00817 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.01 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 A19M00842 Los Angeles Whole Sales Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.051 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 A19M00853 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.084 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 A19M00853 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Carbofuran 0.015 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 A19M00853 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.14 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 A19M00853 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Permethrin 0.026 NTE Vietnam
06/25/19 R19M00818 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Acephate 0.08 0.02 Ecuador
06/25/19 R19M00818 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Thiabendazole 0.023 NTE Ecuador
06/25/19 R19M00818 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Chlorothalonil 0.05 NTE Ecuador
06/25/19 R19M00818 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Methamidophos 0.031 NTE Ecuador
06/25/19 R19M00818 Santa Clara Retail Dragonfruit Cypermethrin 0.21 0.05 Ecuador
06/25/19 A19M00859 Stanislaus Retail Chayote Fruit Monocrotophos 0.081 NTE Mexico
06/25/19 R19M00827 Tulare Retail Radish Tops Linuron 0.026 NTE California
06/26/19 R19M00837 Sacramento Retail Peppers (Chili Type) Fipronil Sulfone 0.016 NTE Dominican Republic
06/26/19 R19M00837 Sacramento Retail Peppers (Chili Type) Fipronil 0.13 NTE Dominican

Republic
07/08/19 A19M00876 San Diego Whole Sales Tomato Chlorpropham 0.22 NTE Mexico
07/22/19 A19M00972 Los Angeles Whole Sales Raspberry Flonicamid 0.16 NTE Mexico
07/22/19 A19M00988 Santa Clara Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Dimethoate 0.1 NTE Mexico
07/22/19 A19M00989 Santa Clara Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Dimethoate 0.19 NTE Mexico
07/22/19 R19M00924 Sacramento Retail Chayote Fruit Teflubenzuron 0.01 NTE Mexico
07/22/19 R19M00925 Sacramento Whole Sales Spinach Chlorothalonil 0.045 NTE California
07/24/19 A19M01000 Los Angeles Whole Sales Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.018 NTE Mexico
07/29/19 A19M01034 Kern Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pear Chlorpyrifos 0.043 NTE Mexico
07/29/19 A19M01034 Kern Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pear Dimethoate 0.016 NTE Mexico
08/06/19 A19M01080 Madera Retail Lemon Prochloraz 0.059 NTE Chile
08/12/19 R19M01090 Kern Retail Tangerine Tebufenpyrad 0.028 NTE Peru
08/12/19 R19M01091 Kern Retail Dragonfruit Carbendazim 0.92 NTE Vietnam
08/12/19 R19M01091 Kern Retail Dragonfruit Iprodione 0.034 NTE Vietnam
08/13/19 A19M01140 Fresno Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Monocrotophos 0.11 NTE Mexico
08/13/19 A19M01141 Fresno Retail Onions (Green) Thiabendazole 0.078 NTE Mexico
08/13/19 A19M01141 Fresno Retail Onions (Green) Propamocarb 0.13 NTE Mexico
08/13/19 A19M01134 Tulare Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Carbendazim 0.012 NTE Mexico
08/13/19 A19M01134 Tulare Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Permethrin 0.03 NTE Mexico
08/14/19 A19M01132 Tulare Retail Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.016 NTE Mexico
08/19/19 A19M01144 Los Angeles Farmer's Market Peach Formetanate Hydrochloride 0.018 NTE California
08/19/19 A19M01164 Stanislaus Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Monocrotophos 0.034 NTE Mexico
08/19/19 A19M01164 Stanislaus Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Dimethoate 0.042 NTE Mexico
08/19/19 A19M01164 Stanislaus Whole Sales Pricklypear Cactus Pads Methomyl 0.019 NTE Mexico
08/20/19 R19M01147 Merced Retail Tomato Chlorpyrifos 0.02 NTE Mexico
08/20/19 R19M01147 Merced Retail Tomato Thiabendazole 0.016 NTE Mexico
08/20/19 R19M01117 Sacramento Roadside Stand Ginger Root Cyromazine 0.063 NTE China
08/21/19 A19M01180 Los Angeles Whole Sales Onions (Green) Chlorpyrifos 0.02 NTE Mexico
08/21/19 A19M01180 Los Angeles Whole Sales Onions (Green) Permethrin 0.029 NTE Mexico
08/28/19 A19M01222 Los Angeles Whole Sales Onions (Green) Propamocarb 0.02 NTE Mexico
08/28/19 A19M01230 Los Angeles Whole Sales Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.023 NTE Mexico
08/28/19 R19M01182 Solano Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Chlorpyrifos 0.033 NTE Mexico
08/28/19 R19M01182 Solano Retail Pricklypear Cactus Pear Carbofuran 0.03 NTE Mexico
09/16/19 A19M01245 Los Angeles Whole Sales Lime, Persian Lambda-Cyhalothrin 0.016 0.01 Mexico
09/23/19 A19M01283 Fresno Retail Strawberry Methomyl 0.87 NTE California
09/30/19 A19M01300 Los Angeles Whole Sales Manioc (Cassava) Carbendazim 0.017 NTE Costa Rica
09/30/19 A19M01301 Los Angeles Whole Sales Culantro Oxyfluorfen 0.032 NTE Costa Rica
09/30/19 A19M01301 Los Angeles Whole Sales Culantro Cypermethrin 0.29 0.05 Costa Rica
09/30/19 A19M01301 Los Angeles Whole Sales Culantro Tebuconazole 0.022 NTE Costa Rica
09/30/19 A19M01323 San Benito Retail Tomato Captan 0.095 0.05 Mexico
10/07/19 R19M01341 Fresno Retail Cilantro Thiamethoxam 0.025 0.02 California
10/07/19 R19M01341 Fresno Retail Cilantro Chlorothalonil 0.028 NTE California
10/07/19 R19M01341 Fresno Retail Cilantro DDE 0.025 NTE California
10/07/19 R19M01319 Yolo Retail Spinach Propiconazole 0.025 NTE California
10/14/19 R19M01382 Santa Clara Retail Guava Propiconazole 0.021 NTE Mexico
10/14/19 R19M01382 Santa Clara Retail Guava Monocrotophos 0.02 NTE Mexico
10/14/19 R19M01382 Santa Clara Retail Guava Captan 0.14 NTE Mexico
10/14/19 R19M01374 Tulare Retail Tomatillo Methamidophos 0.045 NTE Mexico
10/14/19 R19M01365 San Mateo Whole Sales Spinach Lambda-Cyhalothrin 0.038 0.01 California
10/21/19 R19M01395 Yolo Whole Sales Mustard Greens Linuron 0.023 NTE California
10/21/19 R19M01416 Stanislaus Retail Papaya Prochloraz 0.079 NTE Mexico
10/29/19 A19M01425 Tulare Retail Spinach Propamocarb 0.025 NTE California
11/19/19 A19M01487 Fresno Retail Tomato Captan 0.14 0.05 Mexico
11/19/19 A19M01487 Fresno Retail Tomato Thiacloprid 0.017 NTE Mexico
12/02/19 R19M01566 Tuolumne Retail Spinach Chlorthal-Dimethyl 0.011 NTE Arizona
12/02/19 R19M01534 El Dorado Retail Passion Fruit Buprofezin 0.81 0.3 Florida
12/09/19 A19M01549 Riverside Whole Sales Lettuce, Leaf Linuron 0.012 NTE California
12/09/19 R19M01619 Santa Cruz Retail Beans (Green, String) Captan 0.61 0.05 Mexico
12/10/19 A19M01555 Stanislaus Retail Cilantro Propyzamide 0.01 NTE Arizona
12/16/19 R19M01657 Kern Retail Chayote Fruit Methamidophos 0.011 NTE Mexico
12/16/19 R19M01657 Kern Retail Chayote Fruit Acephate 0.076 0.02 Mexico
12/17/19 A19M01596 Merced Retail Asparagus Pyridalyl 0.012 NTE Mexico

* samples with multiple illegal pesticide residues are reported as separate rows

** NTE – no U.S. EPA tolerance established


Appendix 1 b. 2019 CPRMP sample test results by commodity type, number of samples collected, and number with illegal pesticide residues

Commodity Total Number Collected Number Of Illegal Samples
Aloe Vera 2 0
Apple 105 1
Apricot 47 0
Artichoke (Globe) 17 1
Asparagus 81 1
Avocado 61 0
Banana 36 0
Banana, Dwarf 1 0
Bean Sprouts, Mung 1 0
Beans (Green, String) 18 1
Beans (Seed & Pod Vegetable) 1 0
Beans, Mung 1 0
Beets, Table, Red, Roots 31 0
Beets, Table, Red, Tops 20 4
Bitter Melon 20 0
Blackberry 51 4
Blueberry 24 0
Bok Choy 17 0
Broccoli 82 0
Broccoli Raab 1 0
Brussels Sprouts 23 0
Cabbage 34 1
Cabbage, Savoy 1 0
Cantaloupe 29 0
Carambola (Starfruit) 1 0
Carrots 68 0
Cauliflower 79 0
Celery 34 1
Chayote Fruit 73 9
Cherry 61 0
Chinese Broccoli 3 0
Chinese Cabbage 5 0
Chinese Radish/Daikon 10 0
Cilantro 11 4
Citron (Citrus) 1 0
Collards 3 0
Corn, Sweet 16 0
Cucumber 123 2
Culantro 1 1
Dandelion 1 0
Date 1 0
Dragonfruit 41 25
Eggplant 30 1
Fig 38 0
Gai Choy 3 0
Garbanzos 4 1
Garlic 28 0
Ginger Root 26 5
Grapefruit 16 0
Grapes 28 0
Guava 16 2
Honeydew Melon 42 0
Jicama 44 0
Jujube 2 0
Kale 8 0
Kiwi Fruit 97 1
Kohlrabi 1 0
Kumquat 1 0
Lemon 88 1
Lemongrass 1 0
Lettuce, Head 8 0
Lettuce, Leaf 20 1
Lime, Mexican 26 1
Lime, Persian 14 1
Longan 4 3
Lychee 1 0
Mamey 2 0
Mango 52 1
Manioc (Cassava) 28 2
Melons (All Or Unspec) 4 0
Mint 1 0
Mushrooms 34 0
Mustard Greens 39 2
Nectarine 34 0
Okra (Gumbo) 5 0
Onion (Dry) 26 0
Onions (Green) 54 5
Onions (Shallot) 4 0
Orange 39 0
Otaheite Apple 1 1
Papaya 30 2
Parsley 2 0
Parsnip 1 0
Passion Fruit 3 1
Pea, Snow (Sugar Pea) 7 2
Peach 92 1
Pear 34 0
Pear, Asian 9 0
Peas (Seed & Pod Vegetable) 4 1
Peppers (Chili Type) 62 4
Peppers (Non-Chili) 77 1
Persimmon 5 0
Pineapple 77 1
Plantain 4 1
Plum 21 0
Pomegranate 1 0
Pomelo 1 0
Potatoes 45 0
Pricklypear Cactus Pads 7 2
Pricklypear Cactus Pear 9 6
Radicchio 1 0
Radish 33 0
Radish Tops 20 2
Rambutan 5 1
Raspberry 43 1
Spinach 61 6
Squash (Summer) 66 1
Squash (Winter) 9 0
Star Apple 1 1
Strawberry 61 3
Sweet Potato 36 0
Swiss Chard 2 0
Tamarind 1 0
Tangelo 8 0
Tangerine 60 1
Taro (Dasheen) 4 0
Tejocote 2 0
Tomatillo 112 9
Tomato 137 7
Turmeric 1 0
Turnip (Turnip Greens) 1 0
Turnip (Turnip Roots) 1 0
Watermelons 10 0
Yams, True 3 0


Appendix 1 c. Commodities Sampled With Illegal Pesticide Residues By Origin In 2019.

Commodities Number Of Illegal Samples Total Number Of Samples Percent Illegal State Or Country Of Origin
Apple 1 105 1% China
Artichoke (Globe) 1 17 6% California
Asparagus 1 81 1% Mexico
Beans (Green, String) 1 18 6% Mexico
Beets, Table, Red, Tops 4 20 20% Mexico, California, United States
Blackberry 4 51 8% Mexico
Cabbage 1 34 3% Texas
Celery 1 34 3% California
Chayote Fruit 9 73 12% Mexico
Cilantro 4 11 36% Arizona, California, United States
Cucumber 2 123 2% Mexico
Culantro 1 1 100% Costa Rica
Dragonfruit 25 41 61% Ecuador, Vietnam
Eggplant 1 30 3% Mexico
Garbanzos 1 4 25% Mexico
Ginger Root 5 26 19% China
Guava 2 16 13% Mexico
Kiwi Fruit 1 97 1% California
Lemon 1 88 1% Chile
Lettuce, Leaf 1 20 5% California
Lime, Mexican 1 26 4% Mexico
Lime, Persian 1 14 7% Mexico
Longan 3 4 75% Vietnam
Mango 1 52 2% Mexico
Manioc (Cassava) 2 28 7% Costa Rica
Mustard Greens 2 39 5% California, Mexico
Onions (Green) 5 54 9% Mexico
Otaheite Apple 1 1 100% United States
Papaya 2 30 7% Mexico
Passion Fruit 1 3 33% Florida
Pea, Snow (Sugar Pea) 2 7 29% Guatemala
Peach 1 92 1% California
Peas (Seed & Pod Vegetable) 1 4 25% Guatemala
Peppers (Chili Type) 4 62 6% Dominican Republic, Mexico
Peppers (Non-Chili) 1 77 1% Mexico
Pineapple 1 77 1% Mexico
Plantain 1 4 25% Mexico
Pricklypear Cactus Pads 2 7 29% Mexico
Pricklypear Cactus Pear 6 9 67% Mexico
Radish Tops 2 20 10% California, Mexico
Rambutan 1 5 20% Vietnam
Raspberry 1 39 3% Mexico
Spinach 6 61 10% Arizona, California
Squash (Summer) 1 66 2% Mexico
Star Apple 1 1 100% Vietnam
Strawberry 3 61 5% California, Mexico
Tangerine 1 60 2% Peru
Tomatillo 9 112 8% Mexico
Tomato 7 137 5% Mexico


Appendix 1 d. Origins of illegal pesticide residues detected in 2019

STATE OR COUNTRY PESTICIDE DETECTIONS
Arizona Chlorthal-Dimethyl 1
  Propyzamide 1
  TOTAL 2
California Abamectin 1
  Chlorothalonil 3
  DDE 1
  Difenoconazole 1
  Formetanate Hydrochloride 1
  Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1
  Linuron 4
  Methomyl 1
  Myclobutanil 1
  Propamocarb 1
  Propiconazole 1
  Thiamethoxam 2
  Trifloxystrobin 1
  TOTAL 19
Florida Buprofezin 1
  TOTAL 1
Texas Tebuconazole 1
  TOTAL 1
United States Acephate 1
  Cypermethrin 1
  DDE 1
  Trifloxystrobin 1
  TOTAL 4
Chile Prochloraz 1
  TOTAL 1
China Clothianidin 1
  Cyromazine 2
  Iprodione 1
  Thiamethoxam 2
  TOTAL 6
Costa Rica Carbendazim 1
  Chlorothalonil 1
  Cypermethrin 1
  Oxyfluorfen 1
  Tebuconazole 1
  TOTAL 5
Dominican Republic Fipronil 1
  Fipronil Sulfone 1
  TOTAL 2
Ecuador Acephate 1
  Chlorothalonil 2
  Cypermethrin 2
  Dimethoate 2
  Flutriafol 1
  Hexythiazox 1
  Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1
  Methamidophos 1
  Teflubenzuron 1
  Tetradifon 1
  Thiabendazole 2
  TOTAL 15
Guatemala Tebuconazole 3
  TOTAL 3
Mexico Acephate 3
  Captan 6
  Carbendazim 10
  Carbofuran 1
  Chlorothalonil 1
  Chlorpropham 2
  Chlorpyrifos 7
  Chlorthal-Dimethyl 1
  Cypermethrin 2
  Diazinon 1
  Dimethoate 7
  Endosulfan 1
  Fipronil 3
  Flonicamid 1
  Fluopyram 1
  Flupyradifurone 1
  Lambda-Cyhalothrin 1
  Methamidophos 12
  Methomyl 3
  Monocrotophos 7
  Permethrin 6
  Prochloraz 1
  Propamocarb 3
  Propiconazole 1
  Pymetrozine 1
  Pyridalyl 1
  Pyrimethanil 3
  Teflubenzuron 1
  Thiabendazole 2
  Thiacloprid 1
  Thiamethoxam 1
  TOTAL 92
Peru Tebufenpyrad 1
  TOTAL 1
Vietnam Acetamiprid 4
  Carbendazim 18
  Carbofuran 1
  Clothianidin 1
  Cypermethrin 1
  Difenoconazole 3
  Forchlorfenuron 1
  Hexaconazole 2
  Iprodione 13
  Metalaxyl 1
  Permethrin 1
  Propamocarb 1
  Pyraclostrobin 1
  Tebuconazole 2
  TOTAL 50